Baseline measurements of inorganic trace gases over the Amazon

Ramsay et al. measured inorganic trace gases such as ammonia and nitric acid and aerosols in the dry season at ATTO. They are to serve as baseline values for their concentration and fluxes in the atmosphere and are a first step in deciphering exchange processes of inorganic trace gases between the Amazon rainforest and the atmosphere.

Transport of black carbon-rich smoke from Africa to the Amazon

When forests burn those fires produce a lot of smoke. And that smoke usually contains soot, also called “black carbon”. Black carbon particles are aerosols that absorb radiation and as such can warm the Earth’s atmosphere and climate. But we still have much to learn about aerosols, their properties, and distribution in the atmosphere. One of those things is the question of how black carbon emitted from biomass burning in Africa (i.e. forests, grasslands, savannas etc.) is transported across the Atlantic and into the Amazon basin, and what role it plays there. Bruna Holanda and her co-authors tackled this in their new study published in ACP.

New Publication: Variability of black and brown carbon concentrations

We are currently in the middle of the dry season in the central Amazon basin, where ATTO is located. This time of year is always characterized by lots of biomass burnings, both natural and anthropogenic. Fires produce aerosols, such as black and brown carbon. But the situation isn’t the same every year.

First-author Jorge Saturno just published the study in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) Issue 18. It is available Open Access and thus freely available for everyone.

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New publication: African volcanic emissions reach Amazon

By the long-range transport of particles, such as sulfate, across the Atlantic to the Amazon rainforest and to better understand atmospheric cycling. A good opportunity for that arose in 2014. Some of the most active volcanoes worldwide, the Nyamuragira and Mount Nyiragongo volcanoes in Congo in Central Africa, erupted violently.

During this eruption, they emitted a lot of sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere. This gas that is later converted to sulfate particles by oxidation. Usually, these particles are diluted in the atmosphere as they mix with other particles. It thus becomes difficult to distinguish them far away from their source. However, the emissions of 2014 were so strong that the sulfate particles originating from the volcanic gas were observed over the Amazon rainforest by ground-based instruments at our ATTO site (specifically at the 80 m tall triangular mast) and by aircraft measurements (during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign). This observation is now being used by ATTO scientists as a case study to understand how gas and particle emissions from Africa are transported over the Atlantic Ocean and reach the Amazon Basin.

For scale, the volcanoes in Congo are almost 10,000 km away from ATTO, and it took the particles around 2 weeks to bridge that distance!

The full study was just published in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) Issue 18 by first author Jorge Saturno. It is available Open Access and thus freely available for everyone.

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