Climate projections for South America predict a likely increase in convective activity over the continent. This may cause a greater number of extreme rainfall events, impacting the population, especially those living in risk areas. At the same time, the region is considered the largest convective center on the planet. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the role played by the Amazon region in the modulation of surface-atmosphere relations, the control of greenhouse gases (GHG), and aerosols. The Amazon region is responsible for the generation of rain to the central south region of Brazil through the influence of the so-called atmospheric rivers. As such it is the main continental source of moisture for precipitation in South America. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen present in the water molecule have been used as an important tool in the understanding of hydroclimatic phenomena. They allow the investigation of the origin and movement of water and interaction between the atmosphere-hydrosphere system, and the possible impacts caused by extreme events in tropical areas.
The proposed ISO-ATTO project seeks to understand the existing connection between the Amazon forests and the atmosphere and its relations with the development of convective events. For this purpose we will use data from measurements carried out by instrumentation installed in the ATTO towers. They offer a unique opportunity to analyze:
- the behavior of surface fluxes during convective events and the shallow to deep convective transition
- Micro Rain Radar observations
- the isotopic composition of precipitation (intra-event high frequency collection)
- and meteorological and isotopic information derived from orbital sensors.
The ISO-ATTO project will provide a framework to leverage our understanding of surface-atmosphere coupling and evapotranspiration and precipitation recycling processes relevant to the role of the Amazon as a source of moisture for precipitation in other regions of Brazil and convective development.
ISO-ATTO aims at understanding the connection between the Amazon Forest and the atmosphere and the influence of the Amazon in the development of convective events, by using measurements from instrumentation installed in the ATTO Tower, data from Micro Rain Radar (MRR), the isotopic composition of precipitation (intra-event high frequency collection) and meteorological and isotopic data from orbital sensors.
As secondary objectives we can mention:
- Investigate the behavior of energy and water fluxes associated with the formation and development of convective events.
- Identify the patterns of convective precipitation events using data from an MRR and their relationship with the isotopic composition of precipitation and vapor.
- Identify the relationships between convective events in the Amazon region, and convective events in the central portion of the State of São Paulo, linked to moisture transport from the Amazon.
Prof. Dr. Didier Gastmans – Centro de Estudos Ambientais – Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (Brazil) (Principal Investigator)
Prof. Dr. Ana María Durán Quesada – Escuela de Física – Universidad de Costa Rica (Costa Rica)
Dr. Matthias Schneider – Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)
Prof. Dr. Harald Sodemann – University of Bergen (Norway)
Prof. Dr. Ricardo Sanchéz-Murillo – The University of Texas at Arlington (USA)
Dr. Vinícius dos Santos – Centro de Estudos Ambientais – Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (Brazil)
Dr. Zayra Christine Sátyro – Centro de Estudos Ambientais – Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (Brazil)